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09.08.2007

Nature 448, 676-679 (9 August 2007) | doi:10.1038/nature06049; Received 1 March 2007; Accepted 22 June 2007



Femtosecond time-delay X-ray holography


Henry N. Chapman1,2, Stefan P. Hau-Riege1, Michael J. Bogan1, Sas carona Bajt1, Anton Barty1, Sébastien Boutet1,3,4, Stefano Marchesini1,7, Matthias Frank1, Bruce W. Woods1, W. Henry Benner1, Richard A. London1, Urs Rohner1, Abraham Szöke1, Eberhard Spiller1, Thomas Möller5, Christoph Bostedt5, David A. Shapiro2,7, Marion Kuhlmann6, Rolf Treusch6, Elke Plönjes6, Florian Burmeister4, Magnus Bergh4, Carl Caleman4, Gösta Huldt4, M. Marvin Seibert4 & Janos Hajdu3,4



  1. University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, California 94550, USA
  2. Center for Biophotonics Science and Technology, University of California, Davis, 2700 Stockton Boulevard, Suite 1400, Sacramento, California 95817, USA
  3. Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94305, USA
  4. Laboratory of Molecular Biophysics, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Uppsala University, Husargatan 3, Box 596, SE-75124 Uppsala, Sweden
  5. Institut für Optik und Atomare Physik, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstras zlige 36, PN 3-1, 10623 Berlin, Germany
  6. Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, DESY, Notkestras zlige 85, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany
  7. Present address: Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720, USA (S.M., D.A.S.).


Correspondence to: Henry N. Chapman1,2 Correspondence and requests for materials should be addressed to H.N.C. (Email: henry.chapman@llnl.gov).





Extremely intense and ultrafast X-ray pulses from free-electron lasers offer unique opportunities to study fundamental aspects of complex transient phenomena in materials. Ultrafast time-resolved methods usually require highly synchronized pulses to initiate a transition and then probe it after a precisely defined time delay. In the X-ray regime, these methods are challenging because they require complex optical systems and diagnostics. Here we propose and apply a simple holographic measurement scheme, inspired by Newton's 'dusty mirror' experiment1, to monitor the X-ray-induced explosion of microscopic objects. The sample is placed near an X-ray mirror; after the pulse traverses the sample, triggering the reaction, it is reflected back onto the sample by the mirror to probe this reaction. The delay is encoded in the resulting diffraction pattern to an accuracy of one femtosecond, and the structural change is holographically recorded with high resolution. We apply the technique to monitor the dynamics of polystyrene spheres in intense free-electron-laser pulses, and observe an explosion occurring well after the initial pulse. Our results support the notion that X-ray flash imaging2, 3 can be used to achieve high resolution, beyond radiation damage limits for biological samples4. With upcoming ultrafast X-ray sources we will be able to explore the three-dimensional dynamics of materials at the timescale of atomic motion.



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  • Chen Wev .  honorary member of ISSC science council

  • Harton Vladislav Vadim  honorary member of ISSC science council

  • Lichtenstain Alexandr Iosif  honorary member of ISSC science council

  • Novikov Dimirtii Leonid  honorary member of ISSC science council

  • Yakushev Mikhail Vasilii  honorary member of ISSC science council

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