Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94550, USA.
The predicted superionic phase of water is investigated via ab initio molecular dynamics at densities of 2.0--3.0 g/cc (34-115 GPa) along the 2000 K isotherm. We find that extremely rapid (superionic) diffusion of protons occurs in a fluid phase at pressures between 34 and 58 GPa. A transition to a stable body-centered cubic O lattice with superionic proton conductivity is observed between 70 and 75 GPa, a much higher pressure than suggested in prior work. We find that all molecular species at pressures greater than 75 GPa are too short lived to be classified as bound states. Up to 95 GPa, we find a solid superionic phase characterized by covalent O-H bonding. Above 95 GPa, a transient network phase is found characterized by symmetric O-H hydrogen bonding with nearly 50% covalent character. In addition, we describe a metastable superionic phase with quenched O disorder.