Large-scale uniform α-Co(OH)2 nanowire arrays (NWAs) with an average length of 20 μm grown on pyrolytic graphite (PG) were successfully synthesized by a hydrothermal method at 120 °C. Ultrasonication test was carried out toward the as-made nanoarray products and the result demonstrated their robust adhesion to graphitic substrate. After 300 s of sonication testing, α-Co(OH)2 NWAs could still possess both integrated one-dimensional (1D) nanoarray architecture and good electronic connections with current collector. When investigated as electrochemical pseudocapacitor electrodes, α-Co(OH)2 NWAs exhibited good energy-storage performance in terms of high specific capacitance of 642.5 F/g, good rate capability, and excellent capacity retention. Our work not only presents a cost-effective and scale-up synthetic method for α-Co(OH)2 NWAs but also holds promise in general synthesis of long arrays of other metal hydroxides/oxide (TiO2, Fe2O3, SnO2, etc.) nanostructures on PG substrate by using α-Co(OH)2 NWAs as sacrificial templates.