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 26.10.2009   Карта сайта     Language По-русски По-английски
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26.10.2009

Review


Functional materials with high-efficiency energy storage and conversion for batteries and fuel cells





Bo Penga, b and Jun Chena, b, Corresponding Author Contact Information, E-mail The Corresponding Author






aInstitute of New Energy Material Chemistry, Nankai University, 94 Weijin Road, Tianjin 300071, People's Republic of China


bEngineering Research Center of Energy Storage and Conversion (Ministry of Education), Chemistry College, Nankai University, 94 Weijin Road, Tianjin 300071, People's Republic of China






Received 24 January 2009; 


accepted 19 April 2009. 


Available online 24 April 2009.






Abstract


Electrochemical energy storage and conversion with high efficiency and cleanliness is unquestionably one challenge for the sustainable development of the society of human beings. The functional materials can be applied in the systems of electrochemical energy storage and conversion such as in the fields of batteries and fuel cells. For the aspect of energy storage, high efficiency is closely connected with lightweight and high energy density materials, such as hydrogen, lithium, and magnesium. While for energy conversion, two major problems exist namely the diffusion/migration of ions and the transportation of electrons. The properties of the corresponding materials directly affect the solution of these challenges. Thus, in this review we concentrate on the crystal structures and the properties of functional materials applied in electrochemical energy storage and conversion systems with selected primary and secondary batteries and hydrogen fuel cells. In particular, the design, synthesis, structure and property of the materials, containing (1) cathode, anode and electrolyte for non-aqueous Li/Li+; (2) various Mg, MgxMo6S8 (0 < x < 2) Chevrel phase cathode and electrolyte solutions for primary and secondary Mg batteries; (3) proton exchange membranes, electrode catalysts, hydrogen production and storage for aqueous H2(H)/H+ fuel cells. The advantages and disadvantages involved in the batteries and fuel cells using functional materials are also discussed.





Keywords: Functional materials; Batteries; Fuel cells; Energy storage and conversion; High efficiency





Article Outline



1. Introduction
2. Li-ion battery

2.1. Profile of Li/Li+ system, rechargeable Li-ion battery
2.2. Cathode
2.3. Anode
2.4. Electrolyte

3. Aqueous and non-aqueous atomic/ionic magnesium system, Mg ↔ Mg2+

3.1. Primary Mg battery
3.2. Secondary Mg battery

4. Aqueous molecular/atomic hydrogen and proton system, H2(H) ↔ H+

4.1. Profile of H2(H)/H+ system, hydrogen fuel cells
4.2. Proton exchange membranes
4.3. Electrode/catalyst
4.4. Hydrogen production and storage

5. Conclusions and outlook
Acknowledgements
References





















































Corresponding Author Contact InformationCorresponding author at: Institute of New Energy Material Chemistry, Nankai University, 94 Weijin Road, Tianjin 300071, People's Republic of China. Tel.: +86 22 23506808; fax: +86 22 23506808.










Coordination Chemistry Reviews
Volume 253, Issues 23-24, December 2009, Pages 2805-2813
Functional Hybrid Nanomaterials: - Design, Synthesis, Structure, Properties and Applications


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  • Chen Wev .  honorary member of ISSC science council

  • Harton Vladislav Vadim  honorary member of ISSC science council

  • Lichtenstain Alexandr Iosif  honorary member of ISSC science council

  • Novikov Dimirtii Leonid  honorary member of ISSC science council

  • Yakushev Mikhail Vasilii  honorary member of ISSC science council

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