CZTS nanomaterials were synthesized using a mesofluidic continuous flow reactor.
Low-cost solvents used to improve potential to large-scale material manufacturing
Segmented flow resulted in significant improvements in materials quality
Reaction kinetics determined for CZTS synthesis and optimal conditions determined.
Copper zinc tin sulfide (CZTS) nanoparticles were synthesized using ethylene glycol as a solvent via a continuous flow mesofluidic reactor. In this study reaction temperature, residence time, and precursor concentrations were used to control CZTS composition. It was found that CZTS initially forms by the nucleation of Cu2-xS with subsequent incorporation of the remaining metal species as dictated by the cation reactivity, where Cu+>Sn+4>Zn+2. CZTS nanoparticle films annealed in a selenium-containing atmosphere resulted in the formation of copper zinc tin selenide nanoparticles with much larger particle sizes.